To simulate a new economical architecture for PEM fuel cell and investigate the effectiveness of the introduced structure on the performance, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code is used to solve the equations for a single domain of the cell namely: the flow field, the mass conservation, the energy conservation, the species transport, and the electric/ionic fields under the assumptions of steady state and single phase. In this article, a new architecture of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFCs) stack with typical geometry is presented in which every anode channel is in connection with two cathode channel in the constant length and vice versa. The analyzed numerical results yield to observation the effect of this new structure on the distributions like current density oxygen, water, hydrogen mass fraction, current density and temperature. The introduced configuration has the same active area as the base model. Drawing the polarization curve for this new cell demonstrates that straight channel with dual connection in each channel shows considerably better performance and surpassed by a large amount the current density region of the polarization curves of a fuel cell using the base structure. The improved model can bring several advantages to the conventional PEMFC configuration which associated to the sufficient distribution of the reactants, to the flow field, improvement the concentration distribution along the channels and transport of the reactant gases through the gas diffusion layer (GDL), . .
1. Kim YS., Kim SI., Lee NW., Kim MS., Study on a purge method using pressure reduction for effective water removal in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells”, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2015;40:9473-84.
2. Taspinara R., Litster S., Kumbur EC., “ A computational study to investigate the effects of the bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer interface in polymer electrolyte fuel cells”, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy ,2015;40:7124-34.
3. Verma A., Pitchumani R., “Influence of transient operating parameters on the mechanical behavior of fuel cells“. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 2015;40:8442-53.
4. Jeon Y., Na H., Hwang H., Park J., Hwang H., Shul Y., “Accelerated life-time test protocols for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells operated at high temperature. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 2015;40:3057-67.
5. Sadeghifar H., Djilali N., Bahrami M., “ Effect of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and micro porous layer (MPL) on thermal conductivity of fuel cell gas diffusion layers: modeling and experiments. J. Power Sources, 2014;248:632-41.
6. Sadeghifar H., Bahrami M., Djilali N., A statistically based thermal conductivity model for PEMFC gas diffusion layers. J Power Sources 2013;233:369-79.
7. Sadeghifar H., Djilali N., Bahrami M., “A new model for thermal contact resistance between fuel cell gas diffusion layers and bipolar plates”, J. Power Sources, 2014;266:51-9.
8. Sadeghifar H., Djilali N., Bahrami M., “Thermal conductivity of a graphite bipolar plate (BPP) and its thermal contact resistance with fuel cell gas diffusion layers: effect of compression, PTFE, micro porous layer (MPL), BPP out-offlatness and cyclic load”, J. Power Sources, 2015;273:96-104.
9. Mert SO., Ozcelik Z., Dincer I.“ Comparative assessment and optimization of fuel cells”, Int. J Hydrogen Energy, 2015;40:7835-45.
10. Wei Zh., Su K., Sui Sh., He A, Du Sh. “High performance polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) with gradient Pt nanowire cathodes prepared by decal transfer method”, Int. J Hydrogen Energym, 2015;40:3068-74.
11. Limjeerajarus N., Charoen-amornkitt P.,“ Effect of different flow field designs and number of channels on performance of a small PEFC”, Int J Hydrogen Energy, 2015;40:7144-58.
12. Arvay A, French J, Wang JC, Peng XH, Kannan AM. “ Nature inspired flow field designs for proton exchange membrane fuel cell”, Int J Hydrogen Energy, 2013;38:3717-26.
13. Hsieh SS., Yang SH., Kuo JK., Huang CF., Tsai HH., “ Study of operational parameters on the performance of micro PEMFCs with different flow fields”, Energy Convers Manage, 2006;47:1868.
14. Torkavannejad A., pesteei M., Khalilian M., Ramin F., Mirzaee I., “ Effect of Deflected Membrane Electrode Assembly on Species Distribution in PEMFC”. International Journal of Engineering, transactions c: Aspects Vol. 28, No. 3, (March 2015).
15. Yuh MF., Su A., “A three-dimensional full-cell CFD model used to investigate the effects of different flow channel designs on PEMFC performance”. Int. J Hydrogen Energy 2007;32:4466e76.
16. Lorenzini-Gutierrez D., Hernandez-Guerrero A., Ramos-Alvarado B., Perez-Raya I., Alatorre-Ordaz A., “ Performance analysis of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell using tree-shaped designs for flow distribution”, International journal of hydrogen energy, 3 8 ( 2 0 1 3 ),14750-14763.
17. Sierra J., Figueroa-Ramı´rez S.J., Dı´az S.E., Vargas J, Sebastian P.J., “ Numerical evaluation of PEM fuel cell with conventional flow fields adapted to tubular plates”, Volume 39, Issue 29, 2 October 2014, Pages 16694–16705.
18. Pourmahmoud N., Rezazadeh S, Mirzaee I., Motaleb Faed S., “ A computational study of a three-dimensional proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) with conventional and deflected membrane electrode”. J Mech. Sci. Technol., 2012;26:2959-68.
19. Escobar-Vargas JA., Hernandez-Guerrero A., Alatorre Ordaz A., Damian-Ascencio C.E., Elizalde-Blancas F., "Performance of a non-conventional flow field in a PEMFC". Paper presented at the 20th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems. June 25-28, 2007. Padova, Italy.
20. Juarez-Robles D., Hernandez-Guerrero A., Ramos-Alvarado B., Elizalde-Blancas F., Damian-Ascencio CE., “ Multiple concentric spirals for the flow field of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell”. J. Power Sources 2011;196:8019e30.
21. Cano-Andrade S., Hernandez-Guerrero A., Von-Spakovsky MR., Rubio-Arana C., “Effect of the radial plate flow field distribution on current density in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell”. Paper presented at the ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. November 11e15, 2007. Seattle-Washington, United States of America.
22. Cano-Andrade S., Hernandez-Guerrero A., Von Spakovsky MR., Damian-Ascencio CE., Rubio-Arana JC., “ Current density and polarization curves for radial flow field patterns applied to PEMFCs (proton exchange membrane fuel cells)”. Energy, 2010; 35:920e7.
23. Torkavannejad A, Sadeghifar H, Pourmahmoud N, Ramin F. Novel architectures of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells: Efficiency enhancement and cost reduction. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, Volume 40, Issue 36, 28 September 2015, 12466–12477.
24. Wang XD., Huang YX, Cheng CH., Jang JY., Lee DJ, Yan WM., et al. “An inverse geometry design problem for optimization of single serpentine flow field of PEM fuel cell”. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2010;35:4247-57.
25. Ramos-Alvarado B., Hernandez-Guerrero A., Juarez-Robles D., Li L., “ Numerical investigation of the performance of symmetric flow distributors as flow channels for PEM fuel cells international”. Int. J Hydrogen Energy 2012;37:436-48.
26. Chen YS., Peng H., “ Predicting current density distribution of proton exchange membrane fuel cells with different flow field designs”. J Power Sources 2011;196:1992-2004.
27. Cano-Andrade S., Hernandez-Guerrero A., von Spakovsky MR., Damian-Ascencio CE., Rubio-Arana JC., Current density and polarization curves for radial flow field patterns applied to PEMFCs. Energy 2010;35:920-7.
28. Friess BR., Hoorfar M., “Development of a novel radial cathode flow field for PEMFC”. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2012;37:7719-29.
29. Surajudeen Olanrewaju O., “Performance enhancement in proton exchange membrane fuel cell-numerical modeling and optimization [PhD thesis]”. University of Pretoria; 2012.
30. Juarez-Robles., D., Hernandez-Guerrero., A., Damian- Ascencio., C. E., Rubio-Arana, C., “Three dimensional analysis of a PEM fuel cell with the shape of a fermat spiral for the flow channel configuration”, Proceedings of IMECE2008, ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition October 31-November 6, 2008, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
31 Friess BR., “Development of radial flow channel for improved water and gas management of cathode flow field in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell” [Masters of Applied Science Thesis]. University of British Columbia; 2010.
32. Soong CY., Yan WM., Tseng CY., Liu HC., Chen F., Chu HS., “ Analysis of reactant gas transport in a PEM fuel cell with partially blocked fuel flow channels”. J. Power Sources, 2005; 143:36e47.
33. Walczyk DF., Sangra JS., “A feasibility study of Ribbon architecture for PEM fuel cells’. ASME, J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol. 2010;7:051001.
34. Tseng C., Tsang Tsai B., Liu Zh., Cheng T., Chang W, Lo Sh., “ A PEM fuel cell with metal foam as flow distributor”, Energy Conversion and Management, 62, (2012), 14–21.
35. Bilgili M, Bosomoiu M , Tsotridis G, Gas flow field with obstacles for PEM fuel cells at different operating conditions, Int J Hydrogen Energy. Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 2303–2311
36. Vazifeshenas Y., Sedighi k., Shakeri M., “Numerical investigation of a novel compound flow field for PEMFC performance improvement”, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy Volume 40, Issue 43, 16 November 2015, Pages 15032–15039
37. Khazaee I., Ghazikhani M., “Three-dimensional modeling and development of the new geometry PEM fuel cell”. Arabian J. Sci. Eng., 2013;38:1551-64.
38. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi Maher AR., Shahad Al-Janabi Haroun AK.,“Parametric and optimization study of a PEM fuel cell performance using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model”. Renew Energy, 2007;32:1077-101.